Ernst Chain y Max Perutz also fled from the terror of war during their youth. They belonged to Jewish families in the dawn of Second World War. Berlin born, Chain was an acknowledged pianist and music critic who lost his mother and sister in the war. He was a convinced believer. Perutz, born in Vienna, was a bold mountain climber and skier. He was able to save his family and respectfully rejected religion. These two different characters took refuge in England and provided two major scientific achievements of the 20th century. Chain, the composition and isolation of penicillin. Perutz, the first high-resolution molecular structure of a protein: hemoglobin.